Honoring and Helping the Hutan.
Red Ape Facts
Why are orangutans so important to the success of the survival of Indonesian forests?
Orangutans are considered a flagship specie, otherwise known as umbrella specie or keystone species. Protected flagship species allows for the protection of so many other species that inhabit the areas the flagship species inhabit. By default, if there is an area with an umbrella specie all other species that are found in that area are protected too, thereby extending protection to other flora and fauna. Umbrella species inhabit large areas. Habitats where keystone species are found enable the creation of reserves and conservation reserves that can be used for scientific research.
Orangutan “Red Ape” Facts List
Numbers in the Wild
- Bornean and Sumatran Orangutans are found on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
- 6,600 Sumatran Orangutans*
- 54,000 Bornean Orangutans*
*as reported by the 2004 Population and Habitat Viability Analysis Conference (PHVA) held in Jakarta
- Specie survival is threatened due to hunting and habitat loss destruction from logging companies, unsustainable palm oil plantations and companies
To gain more information on Palm Oil, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo- Palm Oil Crisis
General Facts & Numbers
Adult Males, 57-118 kilograms, 130-260 pounds
Adolescents, 25 kilograms, 54.7 pounds
Adult Males, 1-1.8 meters, 3-6 feet
Nests & Home Ranges
Physical Differences in Orangutans
- Dominant adult males (at least 15 years of age) have distinguished cheek pads (sexual dimorphism)
- Subordinant or sub-adult males do not have cheek pads (falanges & Bimaturism)
- Falanges aid in Long-Calls, thus only voiced by dominant males.
- It is possible that long-calls suppress non-dominant males from producing falanges, while it attracts females to a suitor.
- Hair Colours varies on the island the orangutan lives on.
Bornean orangutans are darker than that of Sumatra. (Phenotypic variations)
Females, Infants, Juveniles, & Interactions
- Hidden estrus
- Females reach sexual maturation around between ages 7 & 12
- Usually females will have their first offspring around age 15
- Carries baby for 8 ½ months (~34 weeks).
- There can be a 5-10 year gap between each offspring borne to the mother
- Typically, females birth 4-5 infants in their lifetime
- Birth of twins are rare in the wild. If twinning occurs usually only one of the
two will survive.
- It is not unusual for female adolescents to establish home ranges in close proximity to mother. (Female Philopatry)
- Lifestyle: considered to be Solitary animals, however, populations can be
Semi-Solitary as more social interactions occur during mast fruiting seasons or when traveling between large sources of food.
Predators & Protection
- Orangutans’ hair protects them from rains.
- * However, some orangutan populations have
learned that large leaves make nice umbrellas.
- To protect themselves from predators orangutans stay to the trees, retreat to higher elevation, and hit with sticks or shake branches free of predator (i.e., snakes)
- Warning signs of distress: kiss squeak and facial expressions
- Predators: Sumatran Tigers, Clouded Leopards, Dogs, Crocodiles, and Humans.
- Do not swim
- Bornean Orangutans occupy Primary and Secondary Forested mountainous and swampy habitats, Peat Swamp Forests, and lowland dipterocarp forest.
- Sumatran Orangutans occupy mountainous and plateau forested regions, lowland swamp and dipterocarp forest